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  • Malcolm III (Canmore) (1058-1093)

  • Donald Ban  (1093-1094)

  • Duncan II  (May-November 1094)

  • Donald Ban and Edmund (1094-1097)

  • Edgar (The Peaceable) (1097-1107)

  • Alexander (The Fierce) (1107-1124)

  • David I  (1124-1153)

  • Malcolm IV (The Maiden) (1153-1165)

  • William (The Lion) (1165-1214)

  • Alexander II (1214-1249)

  • Alexander III (1249-1286)

  • Margaret (Maid of Norway)  (1286-1290)

History – Birth of a Nation


Mesolithic & Neolithic Eras  (Last Ice Age – 3000BC)

After the last ice age the first Scottish itinerant visitors (Mesolithic hunter-gatherers) came north from the Mediterranean about 10,000 years ago, probably up the Atlantic coastline (note: the British Islands were still attached to mainland Europe at this time).  From about 7,000 BC ‘Atlantic Celts’ (Neolithic farmers and monument builders) began to visit Scotland’s west coast  - possibly from Spanish Basque ‘refuge’ via Brittany, Cornwall, Wales, Cumbria and Ireland.   Other peoples that came to Britain before the Bronze Age were from Northwestern Europe (e.g. Saxons) and from Central Europe (e.g. so called ‘Beaker People’). 

The Bronze & Iron Ages (2000 BC – 100AD)

The period brought many tribal wars, development of fort settlements, trading and metal-based technologies.  European tribes continued to come to Britain – including Danish Vikings & German Saxons from northwest Germany, the so-called Celtic tribes (up the coastlines) from South-west France, and Belgae & Parisi tribes from Central Europe.  It is also possible that, towards the end of this period, the indigenous people in Scotland had formed into the various Pictish tribes, although there is considerable doubt here and no hard evidence to lean on.

Failed Roman Conquest (100-400)

This is the period when Pictish tribes covered much of Scotland – such as the Votadini and the Caledonii (Roman term for all northern Scottish tribes), including the Vacomagi in Angus.  The Roman invasion failed to sustain any lasting dominance in Scotland, although both Antoine’s Wall and Hadrian’s Wall were built during this period to protect what they were able to control.  Gradually the many disparate Scottish tribes formed into the Britons and the Picts. 

Dark Ages (400-1000)

After the Romans finally gave up trying to conqueror Scotland in 410 the Votadini/Britons (Strathclyde), Picts/Gaels (Caledonian), Saxons/Angles (Germanic), Scots (Ireland) and various external political forces/kingdoms (e.g. Norway, English ‘regions’, Ireland) were left to fight it out for control of Scotland (‘Alba’ in Scottish Gaelic) and its future direction.  

Fortunately Celtic Christianity gradually provided a unifying force and so slowly through leadership, diplomacy, inter-marriage, assassination and harsh realities these different peoples finally came together as the ‘Scots’.

Early Medieval Times (1000-1290)

The new Kingdom of the Scots was led by the powerful Canmore dynasty - founded by Malcolm Canmore and Queen Margaret.  This dynasty (particularly David I) brought the Normans, “European” ideas, and many much needed changes to Scotland.

These changes included: feudal nobles with castles/land and tenants they looked after; a structured legal system with documents of record; trading "burghs" which held local monopolies in buying and selling; strong church influence (new monasteries with significant land ownership); and the first royal coinage.  This was when families like the Bruces, Balliols and Stewarts first arrived in Scotland - to become the future of Scotland.  The English, of course, still wanted their superiority over Scotland recognised, and achieved this from time to time!  By the end of this period Scotland was an established kingdom similar to other European kingdoms.  However it was very backward socially, artistically and culturally compared to its Dutch, French and English neighbors.


  • Kenneth Macalpin (843-859)

  • Donald I (860-863)

  • Constantine I (863-877)

  • Aed (877-878)

  • Eochaid  878-889)

  • Donald II (889-900)

  • Constantine II (900-942


  • Malcolm I (942-954)

  • Indulf (954-962)

  • Dubh (962-967)

  • Cuilean (967-971)

  • Kenneth II  971-995)

  • Constantine III (995-997)

  • Kenneth III (997-1005)

  • Malcolm II (1005-1034)

  • Duncan I (1034-1040)

  • Macbeth (1040-1057)

  • Lulach (The Fool) (1057-1058)

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